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By Kei Nakatani, Chunhe Chen, King-Wai Yau, Yiannis Koutalos (auth.), Wolfgang Baehr Ph.D., Krzysztof Palczewski Ph.D. (eds.)

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Leibovic KN. A new method of non-enzymatic dissociation of the Bufo retina. J Neurosci Methods 1986; 15:301-6. 29. Leibovic KN, Dowling JE, Kim YY. Background and bleaching equivalence in steady-state adaptation of vertebrate rods. J Neurosci 1987; 7:1056-63. 30. Leibovic KN, Bandarchi J. Recovery from bleaching in photoreceptors promoted by biotin, pyruvate, and glucose. Vis Neurosci 1990; 4:489-92. 31. Gray-Keller MP, Detwiler PB. The calcium feed back signal in the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate rods.

The arrow at the beginning of each record marks the timing of the flash. At each intensity the currents were recorded from three different lengths of ROS in the recording electrode (28, 40 and 50 µm, respectively) As the intensity increases, the amplitude and the duration of the response increases up to a saturating amplitude, after which only the duration continues to increase. As the recorded ROS length decreases the response amplitude decreases and the duration increases. The full vertical lines indicate progressively later peak responses with decreasing ROS length.

43 Adding the Ca2+ modulation of the phosphodiesterase only has no effect on the light sensitivity at low light intensities, but changes the slope of the response-intensity relation, allowing the cell to operate over a larger range of intensities (curve 2). Adding both Ca2+ modulations shifts the curve to the right, and reduces the slope, allowing the cell to operate over a large dynamic range (curve 4). Another way of looking at the relevance of the different Ca2+ modulations is to examine the contribution of each modulation to the light threshold at different background light intensities.

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