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EPA, 1985) demonstrated a remarkably close relationship between changes in the lead use in gasoline and blood lead levels (figure 2). S. S. population. Figure 2 Blood lead levels and the use of leaded gasoline in the United States, 1976-80 In many countries, evidence suggests that exposure to lead is one of the most serious environmental problems. Sample blood lead levels of urban populations, especially children, often reach alarmingly high levels (figure 3). It has been estimated (ATECLP and EDF, 1994) that among urban children in developing countries with no identified stationary source, 100 percent of those under 2 years of age, and over 80 percent of those between the ages of 3 and 5, had average blood lead levels greater than 10mg/dl.

5 point decrease in the IQ of exposed children. Additionally, prenatal exposure to lead has been demonstrated to produce toxic effects on the human fetus, resulting in reduced birth weight, disturbed mental development, spontaneous abortion, or premature birth at relatively low blood lead levels. In response to increasing epidemiological evidence about the impacts of lead, the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) gradually lowered the level of lead in blood, over which medical intervention is necessary, from over 60mg/dl before 1975 to 30mg/dl in 1975; 25mg/dl in 1985; and 10mg/dl in 1991.

Cooperation with NGOs can substantially increase the effectiveness of government efforts in public awareness building. Additionally, targeted training of auto mechanics and service station attendants should facilitate the promotion of proper fueling practices. Page 1 Chapter 1 Health Impacts of Leaded Gasoline Lead has long been recognized as a neurotoxin that causes renal damage, neurological dysfunction, anemia, and at high doses, death. For a long time, medical attention concentrated on acute poisoning due to accidental and occupational exposures.

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