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Water losses in municipal networks are estimated to average around 30% in most OECD countries, often exceeding the economically optimum level – estimated to be on average between 10 and 20%, depending on the nature of individual systems. A number of OECD ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY: 2004 REVIEW OF PROGRESS – ISBN 92-64-10780-0 – © OECD 2004 43 OBJECTIVE 1: MAINTAINING THE INTEGRITY OF ECOSYSTEMS THROUGH THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES OECD countries have been replacing or upgrading old water services pipe networks, and in this context have been able to sometimes significantly reduce water network leakage, to as little as 10-12% in some countries.

OECD (forthcoming 2004), Biomass and Agriculture: Renewable Energy and Material Markets, OECD, Paris. OECD/IEA (2002), Dealing with Climate Change: Policies and Measures in IEA Member Countries, OECD, Paris. OECD/IEA (2003), “Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry – Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned: Workshop Report” [COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT(2003)2], OECD, Paris. OECD/IEA/IETA (2002), National Systems for Flexible Mechanisms: Implementation Issues in Countries with Economies in Transition: Workshop Report, May 2002, Paris.

8. Provision of a first block at zero price for poor people or all people. 9. Provision of water to individual dwellings is unmetered in most cases (flat rate tariff for households). 10. Only proportional fee. 11. Income support for poor people. 12. Used, but not in most cases. Source: Adapted from Academy of Water (2002). g. free initial amount, grants, forgiveness of arrears), avoiding water disconnection and abolishing annual fixed fees (OECD, 2003c). National action 6. Significantly reduce water network leakage.

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