Download Occasion Setting: Associative Learning and Cognition in by Nestor Schmajuk, Peter C. Holland PDF

By Nestor Schmajuk, Peter C. Holland

Over sixty years in the past, B. F. Skinner proposed discriminative stimulus in an operant conditioning paradigm doesn't elicit a reaction yet easily "sets the get together" for the reaction to take place. extra lately, investigators have claimed that, while in lots of Pavlovian conditioning paradigms a conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits a conditioned reaction (CR) since it signs the prevalence of an unconditioned stimulus, in different paradigms a CS elicits a CR since it units the party for the responding produced by means of one other CS. The eminent team of experimental psychologists and theoreticians who authored the chapters of this e-book speak about the present prestige of knowledge and theories bearing on easy classical conditioning and social gathering surroundings. half 1 compares the houses of easy stimuli and party setters; half 2 analyzes the assorted paradigms within which the concept that of social gathering surroundings may be utilized; and half three introduces 4 formal types of classical conditioning that deal with get together atmosphere.

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Extra info for Occasion Setting: Associative Learning and Cognition in Animals (Apa Science Volumes)

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For example, consider the most simple transfer experiment, in which animals are given training on two occasion-setting discriminations, in which X signals reinforcement of a and Y of b. Suppose that transfer is found to be incomplete, 'One might also expect an occasion setter to enhance responding to any transfer target through simple Pavlovian summdtion. 54 CONDITIONAL LEARNING: AN ASSOCIATIVE ANALYSIS so that X, for example, has more effect on responding to a (Same trials) than to b (Different trials).

The results therefore support the suggestion that, at least in the case of positive occasion setting, the occasion setter can be sensitive to the specific CS-US combination that it signaled 62 CONDITIONAL LEARNING: AN ASSOCIATIVE ANALYSIS in training; this is, of course, consistent with the predictions of the account of occasion setting that I have outlined. CONCLUSION I have considered two sets of experiments that address the predictions of an account of occasion setting in which the occasion setter’s properties derive from an association between it and a representation of the targetUS pairing.

Z E 7 Feature absent Feature present 6 L. W 2 2 c 4 0 g 2 Lx 0 a b Mean response rates during the target CSs a and b in the presence and absence of feature Z during the test. b elicited much responding when presented alone, and the presence of feature Z enhanced responding to both of these stimuli. The critical finding, however, is that this enhancement was significantly greater for b than for a. This is exactly what was predicted and is consistent with the suggestion that the ability of Z to act as an occasion setter for a was blocked by the presence of the pretrained feature, X.

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