By S. C. Singh, H.B. Zeng, Chunlei Guo, Weiping Cai
The 1st in-depth remedy of the synthesis, processing, and characterization of nanomaterials utilizing lasers, starting from basics to
the newest study effects, this convenient reference is split into major sections. After introducing the techniques of lasers, nanomaterials, nanoarchitectures and laser-material interactions within the first 3 chapters, the ebook is going directly to speak about the synthesis of varied nanomaterials in vacuum, fuel and drinks. the second one part discusses a number of nanomaterial characterization options concerning lasers, from Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies to mild dynamic scattering, laser spectroscopy and such strange strategies as laser photograph acoustic, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, ultrafast dynamics and laser-induced thermal pulses.
The expert authors undertake a pragmatic process all through, with an emphasis on experiments, set-up, and effects. each one bankruptcy begins
with an creation and is uniform in protecting the elemental ways, experimental setups, and dependencies of the actual procedure on
assorted parameters, offering enough conception and modeling to appreciate the rules in the back of the techniques.Content:
Chapter 1 Lasers: basics, kinds, and Operations (pages 1–34): Dr. Subhash Chandra Singh, Prof. Haibo Zeng, Prof. Chunlei Guo and Prof. Weiping Cai
Chapter 2 advent of fabrics and Architectures on the Nanoscale (pages 35–66): Dr. Subhash Chandra Singh, Prof. Haibo Zeng, Prof. Chunlei Guo, Ram Gopal and Prof. Weiping Cai
Chapter three Laser–Matter interplay (pages 67–104): Alan M. Heins, Prof. Chunlei Guo and Dr. Subhash Chandra Singh
Chapter four Nanomaterials: Laser?Based Processing in fuel section (pages 105–201): Rashid Ashirovich Ganeev, Rusen Yang, Jung?Il Hong, Bingqiang Cao, Ruiqian Guo, Tatsuo Okada and M. Samy El?Shall
Chapter five Nanomaterials: Laser?Induced Nano/Microfabrications (pages 203–316): Anatoliy Vorobyev, Prof. Chunlei Guo, Hironobu Sakata, Moriaki Wakaki, Qing Wang, Vahit Sametoglu, Ying Yin Tsui, Matthias Nagel and Thomas Lippert
Chapter 6 Nanomaterials: Laser?Based Processing in Liquid Media (pages 317–494): Dr. Subhash Chandra Singh, Prof. Haibo Zeng, Shikuan Yang, Prof. Weiping Cai, Minghui Hong, Guoxin Chen and Tow Chong Chong
Chapter 7 Raman Spectroscopy: fundamentals and purposes (pages 495–534): Patrick J. McNally and Vasant G. Sathe
Chapter eight measurement selection of Nanoparticles via Dynamic mild Scattering (pages 535–554): Haruhisa Kato
Chapter nine Photolumniscence/Fluorescence Spectroscopic process for Nanomaterials Characterizations (pages 555–620): Bingqiang Cao, Haibo Gong, Prof. Haibo Zeng, Prof. Weiping Cai, Kaushal Kumar, Luigi Sanguigno, Filippo Causa, Paolo Antonio Netti and Yashashchandra Dwivedi
Chapter 10 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Its functions in Characterization of Nanomaterials (pages 621–649): Kaushal Kumar, Aditya Kumar Singh and Avinash Chandra Pandey
Chapter eleven Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials (pages 651–692): Dr. Subhash Chandra Singh and Yashashchandra Dwivedi
Chapter 12 Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Nanomaterials (pages 693–728): Rashid Ashirovich Ganeev
Chapter thirteen Polarization and Space?Charge Profiling with Laser?Based Thermal thoughts (pages 729–758): Axel Mellinger and Rajeev Singh
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Additional info for Nanomaterials: Processing and Characterization with Lasers
Waves starting from the surface of mirror M1 and those that have completed one or more round trips are in the same phase. Now, the gain G(I2 /I0 ) attained in a round-trip should be at least unity to sustain the laser oscillation inside the cavity, therefore R1 R2 exp2(k − ϒ)L = 1 is the threshold condition, which gives a value of ϒ + (2L)−1 ln(R1 R2 )−1 for threshold gain (kth) coefﬁcient. 6 Optical Resonator An optical resonator is an arrangement of optical components, which allows a beam of light to circulate in a closed path so that it retraces its own path multiple times, in order to increase the effective length of the media with the aim of large light ampliﬁcation analogous to the positive feedback in electronic ampliﬁers.
After attaining this stage, ampliﬁcation of wave amplitude within the cavity dies away and extra energy produced by stimulated emission exits as laser output from the window M2 . The gain coefﬁcient inside the cavity should be greater than the threshold gain coefﬁcient (kth) in order to start and maintain laser oscillation inside the cavity. Owing to the diffraction effects, it is practically difﬁcult to maintain a perfectly collimated beam with the combination of two parallel plane mirrors, which causes signiﬁcant amount of diffraction losses.
The active medium in a semiconductor diode laser is in the form of junction region of 2 two-dimensional layers. No external mirror is required for optical feedback in order to sustain laser oscillation. The reﬂectivity due to the refractive index differences between two layers or total internal reﬂection to the active media is sufﬁcient for this purpose. The diodes end faces are cleaved, and parallelism of reﬂecting surfaces is assured. 11 (a) Energy level diagram for the transition of Nd:YAG laser (b) The Q-switch comprises a polarizer, a quarter-wave plate, high quality reﬂector, and pockels cell, and (c) stable and unstable resonator conﬁgurations.