By Kenneth Swindell
Purely the second one quantity devoted to Dante and the Franciscans, this selection of essays bargains a Franciscan studying of the "Divine Comedy". 9 of the 10 essays tackle how "Dante's Comedy" and his "Vita Nuova" have been inspired via Franciscan spirituality; the 10th essay addresses the impact that "Dante's Comedy" had at the preaching of the Franciscan Order. extra in particular, the essays during this quantity are actually interdisciplinary and give a contribution to the certainty of the way Dante understood and hired Franciscan resources in his literary construction and the way Bernardino of Siena built-in Dante's paintings in his preaching.
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Extra info for Migrants, Credit And Climate: The Gambian Groundnut Trade, 1834-1934 (African Social Studies Series)
Although there was a diverse legitimate trade out of The Gambia in the early 19th century, the ending of the Atlantic slave trade brought a period of economic uncertainty for both merchants and producers. Beeswax, hides and gum were subject to sharp ﬂuctuations in supply and were not as valuable as slaves, and while they represented a diversity of goods, they were less easy to handle, store and transport. In such circumstances the emergence of the groundnut trade was particularly propitious in the context of changed economic conditions.
48 And in 1856 the Annual Report noted that the “improvements in Customs Revenue have been due to the greater importation of fancy goods of all kinds—particularly cotton manufactures, spirits, 47 48 Annual Report, 1857. Annual Report 1847, encl. in Blue Book CO 87/41. 49 Thus by 1857 it is arguable that Gambia had become a specialist producer of groundnuts, in the sense it was integrated into the world trading economy and subject to the law of comparative advantage, but although food was being imported it had not become a monoculture.
Many Soninke became pioneer migrant groundnut farmers, who secured land from the rulers and chiefs of Niumi and Baddibu. While local chiefs moved into the groundnut farming, the presence of a large number of Soninke migrant farmers became pivotal to the development and expansion of the groundnut trade. Their involvement in the groundnuut trade at an early stage is also arguably an important part of the Soninke adaptation to the ending of the Atlantic slave trade. Their role, and the question of migrant labour in general are discussed in some detail in the next chapter.