By Jerzy Topolski (auth.)
No self-discipline has been extra praised or extra criticized than the writing of historical past. Cioero claimed that background teaches males the way to stay. Aris totle denied it the very identify of technology and regwded poetry because the better knowledge. At a number of instances heritage has been assigned a command ing or a demeaning statIUs within the hierarchy of sciences. this present day it is easy to respect the expanding precision and class of the tools utilized by historia:ns. nevertheless, Thucydides' background of the PeZo ponesian warfare nonetheless serves because the excellent version of the way to reconstruct the background. Even those that deny the opportunity of an goal reconstruction of the previous could themselves likie to be recorded via historians, "objectively" or now not. Dislike of heritage and worry of its verdict aren't incompatible with reverence and awe for its practitioners, the historians. So man's angle to background is ambiguous. the talk approximately historical past maintains. broadly differing concerns are at stake. Historians themselves, despite the fact that, are the least engaged within the fight. hardly ever does a historian choose to open the door of his learn and take part the melee concerning the that means of heritage. extra usually he slams it close and returns to his reports, oblivious of the truth that with the passage of thne the space among his medical paintings and its viewers may perhaps widen. The historian doesn't shun the conflict, he only chooses his personal battleground.
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5) description - always selective - of what occurred. , answering the question within the domain under consideration), (9) evaluation of persons and events in the past. When it comes to the third of the tasks of pragmatic methodology, as listed by Ajdukiewicz, interests in the science of history focus on defining the goals by which historians are guided in their research; in 34 METHODOLOGY AND ffiSTORY this connection it must be realized that these goals may change in the course of history. It suffices to recall that it was not always the desire to draw the true picture of the past that was guiding the historians.
Thus the task of the objective methodology of history is to characterize, in a general way, the domain which is the model of historical science as to: (l) make it possible to distinguish the true statements about that domain from the false; (2) provide heuristic directives for the study of that domain; (3) provide theoretical terms needed in a scientific description of that domain. All knowledge of the subject matter of study is part of a historian's knowledge, a part which also is essential in historical research.
Moraze, Introduction a l'histoire economique, Paris 1948 (first published in 1943). 9 Ch. Verlindoo, Introduction a l'histoire economique, Coimbra 1948. 10 Cf. A. ); C. Beutin, Einfiihrung in die Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Koln-Graz 1958; W. Kula, Problemy i metod, historii gospodarczej (Issues and Methods in Economic History), Warszawa 1963, p. 7. 11 See also Derek J. de Solla Price, Science Since Babylon, New HavenLondon 1961. 12 More general works are for example: G. P. Gooch, History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century, London 1913; K.