By Anne Marie Habraken
Covers functional ideas comparable to injection molding, composites forming, die extrusion, hydro-forming, blowing, forging, machining and slicing, and great plastic forming, and considers a number of fabrics together with composites, metals, polymers, wooden, and bones.
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Extra info for Material Forming Processes
This anisotropy is usually desired, but it needs to be controlled in order to optimize the mechanical properties of the final product (for example orientating the fibers in the principal stress directions). One possibility to control the induced anisotropy lies in the experimental determination of the fiber orientation in prototype pieces. However, this fully experimental trial and error procedure is known to be very expensive because it requires the design and manufacture of several molds. In this context the process simulation is very attractive for industry because it allows a significant reduction of the design cost.
01.. 5 . 10 - 2 . Constant time increments of 5. 10-3 have been chosen in an explicit time integration algorithm. The penalty parameter ε has been set to 10 -12 . The cloud of points has initially 99 particles, shown in Figure 6, and a constant inlet of points takes place at each time increment. No-slip boundary conditions have been imposed at the mold walls. 30 Material Forming Processes Figure 5. 1. Plots of the configuration of the cloud of points at different time steps are shown in Figure 6 (a) to (d).
These, and its inherent meshless structure make the NEM an appealing choice also for application in the simulation of fluid flows. Here, we apply this meshless technique in short fiber suspension flow simulations. It is shown that the NEM has an appealing potential in application to the simulation of complex industrial flows. 2. 1. Standard formulation The NEM is based on the natural neighbour interpolation scheme [SIB 81], [WAT 81], which in turn relies on the concepts of Voronoi diagrams [VOR 08] and Delaunay triangulations [DEL 34] (see Figure I), to build Galerkin trial and test functions.