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By Elyssa Faison

On the flip of the 20th century, Japan launched into a challenge to modernize its society and undefined. For the 1st time, younger eastern girls have been persuaded to depart their households and input the manufacturing facility. Managing girls focuses on Japan's interwar cloth undefined, interpreting how manufacturing unit managers, social reformers, and the country created visions of a in particular eastern femininity. Faison unearths that lady manufacturing facility staff have been built as "women" instead of as "workers" and that this womanly excellent used to be used to increase labor-management practices, inculcate ethical and civic values, and enhance a method for holding union actions and moves. In an built-in research of gender ideology and ideologies of nationalism and ethnicity, Faison exhibits how this discourse on women's salary paintings either produced and mirrored anxieties approximately women's social roles in smooth Japan.

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Sample text

The successes of the German rationalization movement in evidence by the end of the 1920s prompted the National Industrial Conference Board in the United States—in an ironic inversion of origination claims—to study the implementation and efficacy of German methods in order to apply the approach to American industry. 8 The crucial difference between the earlier American efficiency efforts and the later rationalization movement of the Germans lay in the organizational relationship between government and industry and the emphasis on corporate combinations, or cartels.

From Home Work to Corporate Paternalism 19 Part of the reason for the difference in educational facilities for males and females—in addition to the company emphasis on treating female employees more as women and future mothers than as labor—has to do with their relative ages and educational background upon entering the company. While girls as young as fourteen commonly came to work as operatives for the larger textile mills, and just under half of the girls employed by Kanebo had not finished their elementary education, males who were concentrated in the dyeing sections of Kanebo’s operations tended to be somewhat older and to have at a minimum completed their elementary studies.

The attention paid to the issue of free time in the cotton mills reflected a broader concern for the management of all workers’ off-hours as part of a plan for social regulation, but this concern manifested itself in particular ways when applied to female labor. Employers’ expectations that the end of night work would increase the amount of factory girls’ unsupervised time led to the development of programs meant to foster the ideology of “good wife, wise mother” first promoted systematically in the early 1920s by larger cotton-spinning companies, like Kanegafuchi Spin27 28 “Idle Youngsters” ning, that offered significant amenities as part of their paternalistic labor policies.

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