By David John Pratt
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In general, development should aim to assist mobility, but where there is no need to be mobile, or pastoralists are caught in a poverty trap, semi-sedentary systems warrant support. ). Seldom is there just one species, and there may be four or five, each fulfilling a different but complementary function. Seldom, too, is any species reared solely for sale. Usually the animals that are sold are of the type most abundant or Table 2-1. Criteria for Differentiating Pastoral SystemsAttributeSubsetFeatureEcologyLocationalTemperate or tropical (also sometimes seaboard and upland)aPluvial bDesert, dryland, or (sub) humidEconomyAnimal-based subsistenceMeat-oriented or milk-orientedDiversifiedAgropastoral, investment-based, or trade-dependent (alsosometimes multiple-use) cLivestockBovineBos indicus (zebu) or other cattle (plus yak in E.
Key words: Pastoralism - Arid lands Rangeland - Livestock - Africa - Middle East - Natural resources - Mobility (in resource use) - Population pressure - Development planning - Institutions - Drought management - Technology - Project design - Monitoring Summary Introduction (Chapter 1). NRM is more complex than is commonly appreciated. It is the product of interaction among the natural system that produces the resources on offer, the user system that is exploiting these resources, and the wider geopolitical system in which the resource users are operating.
Yet the attributes mentioned abovenot least the value systems and the economic orientation of any pastoral systemradically affect the choice of development inputs. Assess population pressure and societal coping mechanisms in order to establish whether present population pressure represents a serious impediment to progress (Chapter 3). Indicators of pressure fall into three categories - societal indicators assess the effectiveness of welfare mechanisms, household indicators lie principally in stock wealth, and environmental indicators lie in the total landscape and its use.