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By Michael C. Ashton

Designed for higher point undergraduate and graduate point scholars inquiring in regards to the psychology of character and person changes, this textbook specializes in the character characteristics and similar features that make every body designated. simple ideas of character size are defined and the most important medical questions of character psychology are tested through a reader-friendly type and diverse bins of fascinating asides to maintain scholars' attention.

Unlike lower-level texts written from a historic standpoint that focus exclusively on idea, this textbook summarizes and integrates the modern learn to be had approximately person adjustments.

*Emphasizes present examine and significant theoretical issues
*Provides built-in remedy of wide selection of subject matters regarding the character and person differences
*Explains an important recommendations in transparent and easy manner*Testbank of questions to be had to teachers through registration on

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Example text

In the example considered here, a person’s average liking of maple ice cream, blueberry pie, and ginger ale probably does indicate his or her sweet toothedness, but his or her liking for each of those three specif c f avors and food types is also important. However, if we average out across a larger number of items—say, by also including items about liking of chocolate-chip cookies, apple fritters, and caramel pudding, in addition to the original three foods—then the common element of sweet toothedness becomes even stronger, and the unique elements of liking each individual food (there are now six of them instead of just three) become relatively weaker .

If a test or scale overall has a large proportion of error variance, then it cannot be measuring any single, common char acteristic very reliably. To understand this idea more clearly, consider the following example. Suppose that we want to measure the extent to which people have a “sweet tooth”—that is, a preference for various sweet-tasting foods and beverages—and that we plan to measure this variable by asking people how much they like various kinds of sweet foods. So, suppose we ask people to rate, on a scale of 0 to 10, how much they like (a) maple ice cream, (b) blueberry pie, and (c) ginger ale.

If there is a criterion variable that is known to measure something very similar to what our scale is supposed to measure, then we would expect our scale to show strong positive correlations with that variable. If so, then this would support the convergent validity of our scale. But if we failed to f nd such a result, then this would be evidence against the convergent validity of our scale; it would suggest that perhaps our scale was not measuring the characteristic that we had intended it to measure.

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