By Michael Hutchins
V. 1. reduce metazoans and lesser deuterostomes / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 2. Protostomes / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. three. bugs / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 4-5. Fishes I-II / Neil Schlager -- v. 6. Amphibians / Neil Schlager, editor -- Reptiles / Neil Schlager, editor -- v. 8-11. Birds I-IV / Donna Olendorf, venture editor -- v. 12-16. Mammals I-V -- v. 17. Cumulative index.; ''This is a revised and up to date variation of 1 of the main authoritative and finished assets at the world's animals. just like the 1st variation written by way of famous zoologist Bernard Grzimek and released in 1972, the second one version covers all kinds of animals in geographic parts world wide. It contains fine quality pictures and illustrations and a accomplished index to all volumes.''--''The most sensible 20 Reference Titles of the Year,'' American Libraries, may perhaps 2004
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Extra resources for Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Fishes 1
Malden, MA: Blackwell Scientific, 1997. , and Joseph J. Cech. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. , 2000. , Gerald R. Allen, and Roger C. Steene. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Honolulu: Crawford House Publishing/University of Hawaii Press, 1997. Melina Hale, PhD Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia ••••• Life history and reproduction Types of reproduction The vast array of adaptations that has evolved in fishes has given them the ability to inhabit a wide range of different habitats, including open seas and oceans, lakes, ponds, estuaries, rivers, tide pools, springs, deserts, forests, mudflats, and mountains.
The pineal organ, which contains neurons and photoreceptors, is located at the distal end of the epiphyseal stalk and is part of the epithalamus, which projects from the dorsal surface of the diencephalon. In many species the pineal organ senses light through the cranium and may have numerous functions, including regulation of circadian rhythms. The optic nerve (cranial nerve II), which runs from the retina to the brain, enters the diencephalon and has inputs to the thalamus and hypothalamus as well as to the midbrain.
Whereas olfactory receptors are localized in the olfactory epithelium within the bilateral nares, taste receptors, or taste buds, are more widespread, occurring not only in the mouth but also frequently on the gill structures and external surfaces, including the barbels, fins, and skin. Signals from the taste buds are transmitted to the brain through several cranial nerves. Cutaneous receptors have input through the facial nerve, whereas inputs Herbivore c d b a f h e g Carnivore a c b e d a) Esophagus b) Stomach c) Gall bladder d) Spleen f g e) Pyloric caeca f) Intestine g) Anus h) Gizzard Differences in digestive systems between herbivorous and carnivorous fishes.