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By Paul J. Bailey

Gender and schooling in China analyzes the importance, impression and nature of women's public schooling in China from its beginnings on the flip of the 20 th century. academic switch was once an crucial element of the early 20th century state-building and modernizing reforms applied by means of the Qing dynasty as a way of strengthening the principles of dynastic rule and reinvigorating China's economic climate and society to chase away the specter of overseas imperialism. an important function of academic switch in this interval was once the emergence of professional and non-official colleges for women.

Using basic facts reminiscent of reputable records, newspapers and journals, Paul Bailey analyzes the several rationales for women's schooling supplied by way of officers, educators and reformers, and charts the direction and perform of women's schooling describing how younger women answered to the tutorial possibilities made to be had to them.

Demonstrating how the illustration of girls and assumptions relating their function within the loved ones, society and polity underpinned next gender discourses during the remainder of the century, Gender and schooling in China will attract scholars and students of chinese language background, gender reviews, women's reports in addition to an curiosity within the heritage of education.

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Additional resources for Gender and Education in China: Gender Discourses and Women's Schooling in the Early Twentieth Century (Routledge Contemporary China Series)

Sample text

The connection between women’s schooling and sexual promiscuity, for example, that pervaded much of subsequent educational discourse is clearly drawn in the episode of the teahouse, in which the three brotherapprentices witness a violent argument between a 20-year-old woman and one of her male companions over ‘cohabiting and splitting up’. After banging the table as she talks, a scuffle breaks out between the two of them and they are dragged off by the police. 10 Later, the three brothers go out on the town and encounter courtesans (‘sing-song girls’) brazenly interacting with male strangers in public: ‘They were like the young women described in books who had received a modern education.

110 Furthermore, by 1905 it was recognized (even amongst conservative officials) that educational reform had to be taken a step further by abolishing the traditional civil service examinations and placing priority on the expansion of the modern school system. 111 By the end of 1905 the centuries-old civil service examination system had been abolished and official commitment to the modern schools reemphasized with the creation of a new government institution, the Board of Education (xuebu), to administer the schools.

As later chapters will show, these attempts to control female students’ behaviour and dress were not always to succeed. 82 Government sanction of women’s public education Between 1902 and 1907, when the Qing government finally sanctioned public education for girls (primary and teacher training schools), male and female activists continued to open schools for girls. 84 The first students at the Patriotic Girls’ School were female members of the founders’ families, although Cai Yuanpei, when he took over the direction of the school, sought to open enrolment to a wider constituency.

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