Download Formability: A Review of Parameters and Processes that by Wilko C. Emmens PDF

By Wilko C. Emmens

- review of fabrics and remedy features of manufacturability of sheet steel
- Written by way of an commercial specialist grew to become scientist
- Concentrates at the formability of sheet steel, one of many primary shape fabric is utilized in metalworking

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Extra resources for Formability: A Review of Parameters and Processes that Control, Limit or Enhance the Formability of Sheet Metal

Sample text

3. That figure shows that a special situation occurs when e \ eb, or: as long as the neutral line stays within the sheet, or: as long as the inner fibre is still in compression. That situation creates some special effects: • The tension is proportional to the elongation. That means that even a small tension force will create some elongation (stretching) and consequently some amount of thinning. This is applied deliberately in some forming operations where additional thinning of the material is created by pulling it over a very small die radius (stretch-redraw in can making).

The FLC is only indicated. Comment: no fracture occurred at S when using DDQ steel However, during that time situations were met where apparently the FLC was incorrect: in some situations the material failed well below the FLC, while in other cases strains were measured in an actual product well above the FLC, see example in Fig. 9. These observations could be encountered for example in situations with bending or a non-straight strain path (see next chapters). So things turned out to be not as simple as they seemed to be in the beginning.

The effects of shear will be discussed in Chap. 9; this chapter discusses effects of thickness stress (normal stress, contact stress). 1 Effects of Contact Stress In every situation where there is contact between workpiece and tool, there is a surface stress: a contact stress normal to the sheet surface. This violates the condition for plane stress (r3 = 0) that underlies the FLC. One has to distinguish between single sided contacts and double sided contacts, as shown in Fig. 1. A single sided contact (left) occurs for example when the material is pulled or stretched over a tool radius.

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