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The Psychological Background: Erik Erikson indicate what kinds of strengths can be expected to emerge under optimal conditions in the first three stages of life. In effect, he has superimposed a whole psycho-social dimension on Freud's psycho-sexual timetable for the growth of the libido. 9 The infant s orality in the first stage of life, for example, is in fact the most typical manifestation of an incorporative mode which, while it is exercised primarily through the mouth, is actually characteristic of the body as a whole.

He detailed the liberal way in which Indian mothers breastfed their children and speculated that very frequent feedings, along with late weaning, had something to do with the way Indians regarded property and with the high value they attached to the virtue of generosity: "The cultural demand for generosity received its early foundation from the privilege of enjoying the nourishment and the reassurance emanating from 15 POINTS OF DEPARTURE " unlimited breast feeding. Further, Erikson wondered if the fact that after teething the infant had to learn not to bite when feeding (at the risk of a blow on the head from his mother) might not have helped generate the cruel belligerence of the Sioux warrior: Did the necessity of suppressing early biting wishes contribute to the tribe s always ready ferocity?

This adult response to infantile modalities is institutionalized in particular methods of childrearing which are designed to shape the activity of the child in ways his culture finds appropriate. The effects are long-lasting. The manner of getting and taking established in the first stage of infancy will influence the way an individual "takes in" his social world even as his taking in becomes more complex and diversified later in life. For the second and third stages of infancy (Freud's anal and phallic stages), Erikson has again tried to show that a biological disposition, when it is molded by childrearing practices, will lead into ' a distinct form of social behavior.

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