Download Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, by World Bank PDF

By World Bank

Every year, thousands of kids in constructing nations fall in poor health and die from ailments brought on by polluted air, infected water and soil, and terrible hygiene habit. Repeated infectious additionally give a contribution to malnutrition in young ones, and in this case affects destiny studying and productiveness. This e-book analyzes the linkages among malnutrition and environmental wellbeing and fitness, and assesses the weight of sickness on kids, and its financial expenditures.

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Extra info for Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences (Environment and Development Series)

Sample text

A key feature in the “fetal-programming” or Barker hypothesis is that being underweight in early infancy or even earlier, in the womb, makes the child more susceptible to rebound growth if food becomes available in abundance. Thus, those girls who were growth restricted in the womb or became stunted in early infancy could be susceptible to overweight and related chronic disease later in life (Eriksson 2005; Sachdev and others 2005). Environmental health conditions have either more distal effects (that is, the mother’s own irreversibly developed underweight status during early infancy or in womb) or more proximate effects (that is, malaria and hookworms that effectively reduce birth weight).

Role is large through indoor air pollution mitigation and becomes greater when the effects through malnutrition are considered. There is increasing reason to believe that hygiene may play a role in preventing ALRIs. Role in primary prevention of diarrhea is very large through improved water and sanitation facilities and improved hygienic practices. • Because of malaria and Role of Environmental Health 34 (c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank • • • • Case finding and case Malaria (8%) management, especially in urban areas, results.

This view was strengthened because investigators could show larger effects on nutritional status with increasing frequency and severity of infections. Some inconsistencies and weak observed effects can be explained by the mitigating effects of breastfeeding and other factors that effectively mask effects of infections on growth faltering in these studies (see appendix A). Experimental clinical trial information on deworming of (continued) (c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, MALNUTRITION, AND CHILD HEALTH 23 children further supports a causal inference between infection and poor growth (Taylor-Robinson, Jones, and Garner 2007).

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