By Philip Cooke, Anna Cento Bull
Ending Terrorism in Italy analyses approaches of disengagement from terrorism, in addition to the hooked up problems with reconciliation, fact and justice. It examines in a serious and unique approach how terrorism got here to an result in Italy (Part I), and the legacy it has left at the back of (Part II). The publication interrogates a big selection of released memoirs and various new face-to-face interviews with either former terrorists and primary and moment new release sufferers.
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Additional resources for Ending Terrorism in Italy (Extremism and Democracy)
The Italian legislation of the 1980s, which will be discussed in depth in the next chapter, is generally hailed as an example of good practice that other countries ought to take into account in their own anti-terrorist strategies (Crenshaw 1991; della Porta 1992, 2009; Jamieson 1989; Stortoni-Wortmann 2000; Weinberg and Eubank 1987). 131) put it, ‘[The Studying how terrorism ends: Italy 23 Italian] strategy is one that policy-makers in other nations confronted by terrorist threats might well study with benefit’.
In addition, the role of individual policy-makers and civil servants in determining a change of direction in the dominant anti-terrorist strategy needs to be taken into account, thus reasserting the importance of agency in the state’s own response. As concerns group and individual level analysis, we believe there is a need to explore further the process of disengagement, with particular reference to imprisoned terrorists. It seems important to understand better the mental, psychological and relational changes that many of them undertook once in prison, which gradually led them from an uncompromising position of open confrontation and determination to continue the struggle behind bars (and here we agree fully with Jamieson’s interpretation) to a position of openly pressing (even negotiating) for prison reform and lenient legislation.
Article 1 also contained other provisions which require comment. It was up to the judge to establish the ‘unequivocal’ and ‘contemporary’ nature of the behaviour. In other words was the ‘repentance’ genuine and did it still apply at the time the judge had to make his decision? This was not likely to be a simple matter. Finally, the article extended its range to include a wider range of individuals who had supported terrorism, but not been actively involved. In these cases, they would be exempt from punishment if they gave ‘complete information of their activities in this regard’.