By Harry Anthony Patrinos, David Lakshmanan Ariasingam
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Extra resources for Decentralization of education: demand-side financing, Part 292
That there is much that governments can do to make choice work, including injecting capital into popular schools so that they may expand and provide disadvantaged groups with more information and extra resources. The projects that are discussed in this paper do not constitute an exhaustive list (table 5). While this report was being prepared, several innovative education projects were initiated, for example, in Indonesia, Tanzania, and, in the training field, Kenya (see Patrinos, Ariasingam, and Liang forthcoming).
Consequently, choice mechanisms should be considered pragmatically as one tool among many to bring about workable education reforms suited to the educational level and local resources and needs. Like other tools, choice mechanisms can be used wisely or ineptly (Henig 1994). I. Bill in the United States, which addressed the special needs of soldiers returning from war who wanted to obtain a higher education to help them secure employment in the civilian marketplace. Another demand-driven example is the Head Start early childhood program in the United States.
About 81 percent of Chadian primary schools receive community contributions, and 21 percent of schools are completely community-financed. Chad faces a multitude of problems in its education sector. For example, there are severe financial constraints, which translate into low and inequitable access and very low quality (repetition rates averaged 35 percent at the primary level in academic year 1994/95). Compounding this problem is poor management and supervision. To tackle these problems, Chad developed an education strategy, the Education-Training-Employment (ETE) Strategy, for 19902000, which is supported by the project.