By Leonard J. Brillson
The authors current the state-of-the-art in becoming, processing, and characterizing digital junctions. total, they've got assembled a huge array of the newest semiconductor interface technological know-how and know-how, starting from complex ohmic, Schottky, and heterojunction contacts to the subtle views of microscopic junctions gleaned from ultrahigh vacuum floor technological know-how thoughts. significant development has been made in those parts during the last few years. This ebook is meant for technologists and sturdy nation researchers alike.
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Extra info for Contacts to Semiconductors: Fundamentals and Technology (Materials Science and Process Technology)
Deep (> 100 A) penetration of high levels (> 5 x 1018 cm·3 ) of Ge is not found below the contact. Atthis point, the contact displays good ohmic behavior with contact resistivity in the 10-7 Q-cm2 range. Annealing at temperatures of -325OC leads to solid-phase transport and epitaxy of the excess amorphous Ge. The contact resistivity, however, does not change. Hence, the onset of good ohmic behavior is correlated with the decomposition of the intermediate epitaxial Pd4(GaAs,G~ phase and solid-phase regrowth of Ge-incorporated GaAs followed by the growth of a thin Ge epitaxial layer as 4Ge + Pd 4GaAs - Eq.
They prepared NVAu/Ge/Ni/W contacts where a 6 nm thick Au layer was added to the NiGeW contacts. The contacts were annealed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for short times (5 - 30 sec). 3 x 10-6 Q-cm2 was obtained at 650°C. This value is comparable with that obtained routinely in the conventional AuGeNi contacts. The contacts were isothermally annealed at 400°C for long times and changes in the Pc values are shown in Fig. 13. The contacts were relatively 28 Contacts to Semiconductors stable at this temperature and less than 50% increase in the Pc values was observed after annealing at 400°C for 20 hrs.
The series solutions are valid only undervery specific conditions which have been assumed in order to make the approximations. [9) The approximations, however, may fail in the case of low resistance ohmic contacts. Their utility for ohmic contacts lies in their simplified form which easily leads to an intuition as to which contact physical parameters predominantly affect contact resistance. The important quantity which comes out of the series solution is Eoo (Eq. 12). It is a parameter which is mainly determined by the band-bending at the interface.