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By Keith A. Harding

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As expected, species with exploded or communal leks all have a large fraction of fruit in their diet (Beehler and Pruett-Jones 1983). However, the promiscuous Black-billed Sicklebill, Epimachus albertisi, where males display solitarily, has an almost entirely arthropod diet (Beehler and Pruett-Jones 1983). The Trumpet Manucode, Manucodia keraudrenii, is monogamous and has male parental care. Rather than M A T I N G SYSTEMS 55 being insectivorous, the Trumpet Manucode is strictly frugivorous even when feeding young (Beehler 1985).

I= o. =. ~= o ~ o e.. 1). The key to understanding the evolution of extra-pair mating systems is female 'control' of EPFs. Females can benefit from EPCs and therefore seek out EPCs (review in Stutchbury and Neudorf 1998). When females seek EPCs, male and female interests within a pair conflict. Female control is well established in temperate zone birds (Hoi and HoiLeitner 1997, Neudorf et al. 1997) and has been shown clearly in a neotropical bird that exhibits female-defense polygyny, the Montezuma MATING SYSTEMS 43 Oropendola, Psarocolius m o n t e z u m a .

Instead, both males and females experience similar sexual selection pressures because they have similar sex roles (Andersson 1994). When parental care by both sexes is equal, both genders are expected to be choosy in selecting mates and to compete intra-sexually for high quality parmers (Trivers 1972, Jones and Hunter 1993). Sexual selection in monogamous birds can also arise when individuals, because of the high quality of their mates, increase their parental effort (Burley 1988). When gender roles are similar, 'differential allocation' should characterize both female and male parental effort equally.

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