Download Bone Marrow MRI: A Pattern-Based Approach by Lia Angela Moulopoulos, Vassilis Koutoulidis PDF

By Lia Angela Moulopoulos, Vassilis Koutoulidis

MRI offers the simplest technique of imaging the bone marrow at once and of non-invasively assessing its composition. common age-related bone marrow adjustments, changes concerning pink marrow reconversion, and pathological bone marrow strategies usually agree to convinced styles that mirror the underlying marrow adjustments and will be truly well-known on MR photographs. as well as traditional pulse sequences, complex MRI thoughts similar to Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging depict marrow alterations on the microvascular and mobile point respectively.

This ebook offers radiologists with in-depth info at the MRI appearances of standard, irregular and handled marrow following a based, pattern-based method. MRI findings for numerous illnesses that have an effect on the bone marrow, rather these of a malignant nature, are awarded intimately. MRI development popularity not just deals a scientific method of photo interpretation and analysis but in addition has prognostic implications with reference to a couple sickness entities. every one bankruptcy encompasses a wealth of fine quality pictures, including Key issues summarizing crucial details.

In addition to radiologists, practitioners with an curiosity in hematology and oncology will locate this textbook-atlas to be a worthwhile source for the most recent, clinically appropriate advances in bone marrow imaging.

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2) ADC values of yellow marrow are lower than those of red marrow. (3) There is a decrease of normal bone marrow ADC values with aging [21, 23–25] (Figs. 23). There are probably many factors influencing the diffusivity of water molecules in bone marrow, but as shown by the above results, fat content probably plays a critical role. As a hydrophobic material, fat may act as a physical barrier to the free diffusion of water molecules [23] (Fig. 24). Since fat is the major component of yellow marrow (≈80 %) and a significant component of red marrow (≈40 %), this could explain both the overall very low diffusion of bone marrow and the lower diffusion of yellow compared to red marrow.

On T1-weighted images, the cartilaginous plates have very high signal intensity. The intervertebral discs appear isointense to muscle (Fig. 1). The signal intensity of the vertebral bodies during the first months of life is lower than that of disc or muscle, reflecting the hypercellular, fat-poor composition of red marrow. From then on, gradually, the cartilaginous plates become less prominent and their signal intensity drops; the vertebral bodies become more squared and their signal intensity increases, from the endplates towards the center.

A very important advantage of EPI is that it seems to provide more accurate ADC measurements than other sequences. Its main drawbacks are low signal-to-noise ratios and a propensity for geometrical distortions, especially in the thoracic and cervical spine [21, 22]. ADC values of normal bone marrow have been reported in many studies. When reviewing these studies, the following conclusions are consistent: (1) ADCs of normal bone marrow are very low, significantly lower than those of soft tissues, such as the liver or muscle.

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