By Rangaswamy Muniappan, Gadi V. P. Reddy, Anantanarayanan Raman
Weeds are an incredible constraint to agricultural construction, relatively within the constructing international. cost effective organic regulate is a self-sustaining technique to decrease this challenge, and produces fewer non-target results than chemical equipment, which could reason severe harm to the surroundings. This ebook covers the foundation, distribution, and ecology of twenty version invasive weed species, which take place in habitats from tropical to temperate to aquatic. Sustainable organic keep an eye on of every weed utilizing a number of arthropods is mentioned. the purpose is to supply ecological administration versions to be used around the tropical global, and to help within the review of capability hazards to local and monetary crops. it is a helpful source for scientists and coverage makers fascinated with the organic keep watch over of invasive tropical crops.
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Extra info for Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods
Seedling recruitment is linked to rainfall pattern, and under favorable conditions, young plants attain maturity in 2–5 years (Fig. 3). Acacia nilotica, when mature, forms dense thorny thickets (900 plants/ha), and mature plants live for c. 40 years (Fig. 3). The golden-yellow flower-bearing inflorescence is ball-shaped and grows in groups of two to six on one shoot. The plants have distinct flat sickle-shaped pods, each 10–15 cm long, bearing 8–15 seeds (Spies and March, 2004). A mature tree will produce up to 30,000 seeds per year, and seeds, when buried in soil, can remain viable up to seven years (Fig.
Acacia nilotica was declared a noxious weed in Queensland in 1957, and is now a weed of national significance in Australia. In the Mitchell grass downs of western Queensland, which cover around 22m ha of natural grassland, A. nilotica has infested more than 6m ha (Fig. 1) and 2000 km of bore drains (Mackey, 1997; Spies and March, 2004). Acacia nilotica is also present in the coastal regions of Queensland, the Northern Territory, and Western Australia (Spies and March, 2004), and has the potential to infest vast areas of Australia’s native grassland ecosystems (Fig.
T. Swarbrick, C. W. L. Henderson, R. J. Jettner, L. Streit and S. R. Walker. Brisbane, Australia: Weed Society of Queensland, pp. 33–38. Marohasy, J. (1994). : Chrysomelidae): a biological control agent for Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae). Entomophaga, 39, 335–340. Marohasy, J. (1995). ) Willd. ex Del. (Mimosaceae) in Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10, 24–31. McEvoy, P. B. and Coombs, E. M. (1999). Biological control of plant invaders: regional patterns, field experiments and structured population models.