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By Edited by: Gisela Montero and Margarita Stoytcheva

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Schematic diagram of dual beam mode-mismatched configuration, where wp and we are, respectively, the probe and excitation beam radius at the sample The presence of such thermal lens is detected by its effect on the propagation of a probing beam passing through the sample. The temporal evolution of the on-axis probe beam intensity, I(t), is measured in the far field using a circular aperture in front of a photodiode. Shen et al. , 1992):       θ 2mV 1 I  t   I  0   1  tan   2    1  2m 2  V 2   t c   1  2m  V 2     2t      2 (17) where  p  m     e  2 (18) wp and we are, respectively, the probe and excitation beam radius at the sample, V = z1/zc, z1 is the distance between the sample and probe beam waist, and zc  02 / p (19) is the probe beam Rayleigh range, 0 is the minimum probe beam radius, p is the probe beam wavelength, I(0) is the value of I(t) when the transient time t or the phase shift, h, is zero.

466-472. pdf. , Mittelbach, M. & Wörgetter, M. (2004). Review on biodiesel standardization world-wide. 2004, BLT Wieselburg, Austria. Prepared for IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Subtask “Biodiesel“. Schumacher, L. (January 2005). Biodiesel Lubricity. edu/bioenergy/biodieselED/publication/. 28 Biodiesel – Quality, Emissions and By-Products Shannon, D. A. R. (2009). Feedstock and Biodiesel Characteristics Report. S. 2 Characterization of Biodiesel by Unconventional Methods: Photothermal Techniques Maria Castro, Francisco Machado, Aline Rocha, Victor Perez, André Guimarães, Marcelo Sthel, Edson Corrêa and Helion Vargas State University of the North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) Brazil 1.

D. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. 4 Low-temperature flow test (LTFT) Although CFPP is accepted almost worldwide as the minimum temperature at which fuel can be exploited, mainly because of the rapid cooling of the sample, the test does not entirely reflect real cooling conditions of the fuel. The Low-Temperature Flow Test (LTFT) is a similar attempt to the test determining the CFPP, the major difference being the cooling speed of the fuel sample, which in this case is 1 °C/h, reflecting more accurately the real conditions, when for example the fuel in the fuel system of a vehicle is cooled over a frosty night.

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