By Darshan Singh Sarai
Water and wastewater operators want an knowing of chemistry to correctly perform the chemical stages of remedy, together with coagulation, sedimentation, softening, and disinfection.
Knowledge of easy chemistry is usually required to cross operator certification examinations. Operators gets the educational they want during this chemistry primer adapted only for operators of consuming water or wastewater platforms
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Extra info for Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators
Why do different elements combine to form compounds? They do so to have their outermost shell in the stable state. Electrons are either transferred from the valence shell of one atom to that of another or shared between the valence shells of two atoms to accomplish atomic stability. Some substances can be mixed together without combining them, such as sugar and salt. The following table shows differences between a compound and a mixture: Compound Mixture 1. Has a definite composi- 1. Components may be tion by weight.
Atoms of different elements combine to achieve the stable state (two or eight electrons in the outermost shell). , metals) lose electrons to those elements with valence electrons from five to seven as nonmetals to form compounds. Thus, elements in groups IA to IIIA, transition and rare earth elements, lose electrons and are known as metals, and those in groups VA to VIIA gain electrons and are known as nonmetals. A heavy, staircase-like line on the periodic table separates metals from nonmetals.
NH3 + HOCl → NHCl2 + H2O 6. Balance the following equation and calculate the amount of oxygen required to react with 5 g of hydrogen sulfide. book Page 47 Monday, February 18, 2002 5:03 PM 6 Acids, Bases, and Salts C ompounds whose water solutions contain ions are acids, bases, or salts. Acids An acid is a substance that gives hydrogen ions (protons) in its water solution. According to the more general modern concept, an acid is a substance that donates protons to another substance. A hydrogen ion (H+) is known as a proton because there is a single proton in the hydrogen nucleus that gives a positive charge after the loss of the electron.