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By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

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W. M i l g r a m , L. K r a m e s , & Τ. Μ . ), Food aversion learning (pp. 1-51). N e w York: P l e n u m . Smith, J. C , & Roll, D . L. (1967). Trace conditioning w i t h X-rays as the aversive stimulus. Psychonomic Science, 9, 1 1 - 1 2 . 2 Pavlovian Conditioning 43 Smith, Μ . C , C o l e m a n , S. , & G o r m e z a n o , I. (1969). Classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating m e m b r a n e response at b a c k w a r d , simultaneous, and forward C S - U S intervals. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 69, 2 2 6 - 2 3 1 .

Original w o r k published 1843) Pearce, J. M . , & Hall, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness o f conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 5 3 2 - 5 5 2 . Rescorla, R. A. (1968). Probability of shock in the presence and absence o f C S in fear c o n d i ­ tioning. Jowrnd/ of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66, 1-5. Rescorla, R. A. (1972). Informational variables in Pavlovian conditioning. In G. H . ), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol.

C o m m o n amongst t h e m . " (1739/1888, p. 174). Table 1 presents an outline of t w o of the conditions studied in an experiment by Wagner, Logan, Haberlandt, and Price (1968). Both groups experienced training in which a c o m p o u n d C S consisting of a tone and a light was followed by the U S on 5 0 % of trials. T w o different tones were used, and in the uncorrelated condition these occurred equally often on reinforced and nonreinforced trials. Figure 6 shows that the light acquired the ability to evoke a C R but that neither of the TABLE 1 Design of Experiment Group Trial types ^ Uncorrelated TIL-*^ TlL-> T2L -> T2L -> Correlated US no US US no U S T 1 L - * US T2L no US ^ L represents a light; T l and T 2 are tones differ­ ing in frequency.

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