By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Ordinary choice, ecology and behavior -- trying out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- fiscal judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary palms races -- Competing for assets -- residing in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and relatives conflicts -- Mating platforms -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- communique and signs -- end
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Additional info for An introduction to behavioural ecology
2008). Reprinted with permission from AAAS. emergence of oak leaves (Quercus robur) and of winter moth caterpillars (Operophtera brumata), which feed on the oak leaves and are a key food for nestling tits. The rates of change of egg laying date with temperature (Fig. 11c) and of caterpillar emergence with temperature (Fig. 11d) are similar, so the tits have closely tracked the temporal changes in food availability over almost five decades. How have the tits managed to do this? For temperate breeding birds, an increasing photoperiod in the spring is the primary proximate cue that initiates gonadal growth and the hormonal changes involved in breeding.
All photos © Warwick Tarboton. indd 28 1/12/2012 4:43:49 PM Testing Hypotheses in Behavioural Ecology 29 Number of species in each category Pair bond Monogamous Sociality Habitat Main food Polygynous Solitary Grouped territories Colonial Forest Insects 17 0 17 0 1 Savannah Insects 5 1 4 0 2 Forest Insects + seeds 3 0 2 0 1 Savannah Insects + seeds 1 7 1 0 7 Grassland Insects + seeds 1 1 1 0 1 Savannah Seeds 2 11 0 1 16 Grassland Seeds 0 15 0 13 3 (1) Species living in the forest tended to be insectivorous, solitary feeders, defend large territories and build cryptic solitary nests.
Esther Cullen, one of Niko Tinbergen’s research students, showed that a comparison with the breeding traits of a cliff-nesting gull, the kittiwake (Fig. 1b), provided comparative support for the anti-predator hypothesis. Kittiwake nests are safer from mammalian predators, who cannot so easily climb down steep cliffs, and they are also safer from avian predators because the gusty winds around the cliffs make attacks from the air more difficult. The different breeding traits of the kittiwake, compared to the black-headed gull, make (b) Fig.