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Extra resources for Ageing And Employment Policies: The Arable Crop Sector (Agriculture, Trade and the Environment)

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A1). Maize is grown in more countries than any other cereal and it is the third most important cereal crop in the world, after wheat and rice. In OECD countries, maize production ranks second, after wheat. Six countries (the United States, China, Brazil, Mexico, France and Argentina) AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT – THE ARABLE CROP SECTOR – ISBN-92-64-00996-5 © OECD 2005 – 33 produce 75% of the world’s maize, with the United States alone producing around 40% of the total. The United States is the largest maize (corn) producer and exporter, accounting for approximately 40% of the grain produced in the world, followed by China, Brazil and Mexico.

AGRICULTURE, TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT – THE ARABLE CROP SECTOR – ISBN-92-64-00996-5 © OECD 2005 – 55 This page intentionally left blank Chapter 2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCTION With the widespread intensification of arable farming, environmental consequences have become apparent throughout the OECD area. Such environmental impacts include damage to, and removal of, soil thereby threatening agricultural sustainability, and water pollution. Modern arable systems also impact upon biodiversity within the system itself, and on associated non-cropped habitats such as grassland, field boundaries and watercourses, as well as on the aesthetic quality of the arable landscape.

3. Wheat yields (average 2000-02) Source: FAO, FAOSTAT, January 2005. 4. Maize yields (average 2000-02) Source: FAO, FAOSTAT, January 2005. 4 Potential environmental risk from increasing intensification of rain-fed wheat production, selected countries, 1996/2000 Area suitable for rain-fed wheat Total ha mill. 8 Yields attainable Actual yields Tonnes/ha Area Yield (mill. 6 Avg. 8 Area Yield (mill. 7 Notes: Area suitable for rain-fed wheat indicates land that – given soil and climate characteristics and taking into account physical and chemical requirements for growing wheat – could potentially produce wheat.

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