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By Peter J.B. Slater, Jay S. Rosenblatt, Charles T. Snowdon, Timothy J. Roper

The purpose of Advances within the examine of habit is still because it has been because the sequence begun: to serve the expanding variety of scientists who're engaged within the research of animal habit via offering their theoretical rules and examine to their colleagues and to these in neighboring fields. we are hoping that the sequence will proceed its "contribution to the advance of the field", as its meant function used to be phrased within the Preface to the 1st quantity in 1965. in view that that point, conventional parts of animal habit have accomplished new vigour through the hyperlinks they've got shaped with similar fields and through the nearer dating that now exists among these learning animal and human matters. Advances within the learn of habit, quantity 31 keeps to serve scientists throughout a large spectrum of disciplines. concentrating on new theories and learn advancements with recognize to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, those volumes foster cooperation and communications in those dense fields.

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Ralls, K. (1976). Mammals in which females are larger than males. Quart. Rev. Biol. 51, 245– 276. Rissman, E. , Clendenon, A. , and Krohmer, R. W. (1990). Role of androgens in the regulation of sexual behavior in the female musk shrew. Neuroendocrinology 51, 468–473. Roff, D. A. (1992). ” Chapman & Hall, London. Rowell, T. H. (1974). The concept of social dominance. Behav. Biol. 11, 131–154. Sapolsky, R. M. (1993). Endocrinology alfresco: Psychoendocrine studies of wild baboons. Rec. Prog. Horm.

B. MALE CONTEST In the context of male contest, some processes through which female choice may drive signal evolution, such as selection for “good genes,” are not relevant, or less so. However, the handicap theory in particular provides a good framework to explain signal evolution in the context of male contest. Birdsong may be used in territorial defense (reviews by Kroodsma and Byers, 1991; Catchpole and Slater, 1995; Searcy and Nowicki, 2000). The first experimental evidence showing this was provided by Peek (1972) who showed that muted red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) suffered from more territorial intrusions than nonmuted controls.

As body size can be an important component in the outcome of fights, selection may have favored the evolution of low-frequency sounds, indicative of a larger body size, in male contest signals (Morton, 1977). , 1996). , Ryan and Brenowitz, 1985; James and Robertson, 1989; Rosenfield and Bielefeldt, 1991; Farquhar, 38 CAREL TEN CATE et al. 1993; Bretagnolle, 1996; Ballintijn and ten Cate, 1997a; Bried and Jouventin, 1997; Tubaro and Mahler, 1998; Whitehead, 1999). Also, it has been suggested that the tracheal elongation shown by several groups of birds has evolved because sexual selection for large body size gave an advantage to those birds that, by enlarging their vocal apparatus, could fake a larger body size than they actually possess ( Fitch, 1999).

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