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By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD

This publication is the main finished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by means of nearly 11 thousand humans situated essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in response to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main whole description so far of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical remedy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams in the course of the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time nearly all of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few teenagers converse the language. even supposing extra teenagers one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to retaining the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely very important. Compiled through the best scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic advisor to local audio system and an critical guide for linguists.

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Extra resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar

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Native speakers of a language often have little detailed knowledge of dialects other than their own. 4. )' chipitah chipotah naakosooma ' shachonna' hatojalaaha' hal47ois hasi7ois nishkdbo ' noshkdbo ' kochcha baliili ' piinih or piini' shfih shillih chanashshik chashshik Pearl River others Bogue Chitto other Mississippi Choctaw Oklahoma Choctaw Pearl River others Bogue Chitto others Bogue Chitto others Conehatta others Bogue Chitto others 'onion' 'tail' 'head' 'railroad train' 'to comb' 'wasp' There is also a fair amount of idiolectal variation which does not seem correlated with community of origin.

At this point i t is not clear if there might be a connection between the old Sixtowns dialect and one of the modern dialects of Mississippi Choctaw. 6. Related Muskogean languages Although the primary focus of this work is Choctaw, in some cases the Choctaw data are compared with data from other Muskogean languages, especially Chickasaw. 1. Higher-level classification within the family is controversial. 1. Choctaw is closely related to Chickasaw, and the two languages form the n . ~two languages are perhaps as closely group Western M ~ s k o ~ e aThe related as Spanish and Portuguese.

Verbs in the aspectual grades have an accent on either the penult or the antepenult, depending on the grade. See chapter 10 for further discussion. Deverbal nouns have a predictable accent on the p e n ~ l t : ~ (9) taldowa' 'singer' However, the accent on underived nouns is not predictable. In this work, pitch accent is written when it occurs on a nonfinal syllable. 3. 1. Possible syllables Choctaw syllables must contain a vowel (long, short, or nasalized), and in general have no more than one consonant in the onset and no more than one consonant in the coda.

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